Singer sewing machine model dating
In 1856, after favorable litigation, Howe entered into the world's first patent pool. Singer (1811-75) patented the first rigid-arm sewing machine.Before this, all machines employed an overhanging arm that held the needle directly and vibrated with it.
In fact, Singer was sued by Howe for infringement of the latter's patent rights, but a compromise was reached where Singer paid a royalty.In spite of this, Singer went on to found a company that became the world's largest manufacturer of sewing machines by 1860.He was awarded 20 additional patents, spent millions of dollars advertising his machine, and initiated a system of providing service with sales.When the cycle was repeated, a second loop was formed on the underside of the cloth with the first loop, thus forming a chain and locking the stitch.Saint's machine, however, never progressed beyond the patent model stage. In 1830 a French tailor, Barthelemy Thimonnier (1793-1857), patented the first practical sewing machine.The earliest known sewing needles made of iron come from the Celtic hill fort at Manching, Germany, and date to the third century BC.
The tomb of a minor official of the Han Dynasty (202 BC-AD 220) has been reported by Chinese archaeologists as containing a sewing set complete with thimble.
Singer's machine also included a table to support the cloth horizontally, instead of a feed bar; a vertical presser foot to hold the cloth down against the upward stroke of the needle, and an arm to hold the presser foot and the vertical needle-holding bar in position over the table.
A real breakthrough was his invention of a foot treadle instead of a hand crank.
By the 1850s, Singer sewing machines were being sold in opulent showrooms; although the $75 price was high for its time, Singer introduced the installment plan to America and sold thousands of his machines in this way.
Other important inventions in the field included the rotary bobbin that was incorporated (1850) into a machine patented by the American inventor Allen Benjamin Wilson (1824-88) and the intermittent four-motion feed for advancing the material between stitches, which was part of the same patent.
It employed a hook-tipped needle, much like an embroidery needle, that was moved downward by a cord-connected foot treadle and returned by a spring.