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This article explores the cult of Hathor and its relation to the Exodus' Golden Calf incident.In my attempt to identify the archaeologically attested historical kernels for the Golden Calf, I posed a question.
I personnally do NOT believe the Exodus as presented in the Bible is true.The sun calf becomes a mighty bull at noon, and at sunset the sun-bull impregnates his mother, the heavens (the sky goddess cow), in order to be born of her the next morning.A number of gods were closely associated as aspects of the sun god, Horus, Ra-Horahty, Khepri, Re, Amun-Re, Atum, Min, Hathor, Isis, and even the Sphinx.The many manifestations that these gods and goddesses could assume is staggering, the sun god, Re or Ra having 75 forms."Among the finest of Egyptian religious expressions, the ' Litany of Ra' provides perhaps the most explicit demonstration of the unity of creation in its creator.According to this belief, creation unfurled out of the sun god..a series of 75 acclamations of Ra 'in' each of 74 forms in his creation...Many scholars understand that repeated, intense, archaeological sweeps of the Sinai by the Israelis in the 1960's and 70's failed to find _any evidence_ of Moses' Israelites!
The Exodus is understood to have occured in the late Bronze Age (ca. 1200-1000 BCE), and the claim has been made nothing exists of these eras to "link" the Exodus traditions to. It is my understanding that the Exodus traditions, in part, are recalling Late Bronze Age and Iron I events in the Sinai and Arabah. Because these wares are found ONLY in association with Egyptian run mining camps!
It is my understanding that it is in these mining camps that some of the pre-biblical origins or "historical kernels" behind the Exodus traditions are to be found and identified.
Two shrines associated with these mining camps have been identified as dedicated to Hathor the cow goddess, one in the southern Sinai at Serabitel Khadim, the other in the Arabah at Har Timna.
The problem is, did Israel use Egyptian "terminology" or did she simply call "any" calf with a gold body "the Golden Calf"? I have established that the ONLY god specifically called a "GOLDEN CALF" by the ancient Egyptians in their writings is Pharaoh in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts (these texts exist into later New Kingdom times in reworked formats).
In these texts Pharaoh calls himself a "Golden Calf," born of heaven, who wishes to be allowed to board the sacred solar bark or boat which carries the Sun god each day across the heavens.
I understand that two differing origins traditions were fused together in the Late Iron II period (ca.